The castle dates from 1602 and was constructed over a period of more than 25 years, until it reached completion in 1627. After the lord of the Matsuyama castle died without leaving a heir in 1635, the castle was assigned to the Matsudaira family, which successfully ruled it for the following centuries. When the feudal system came to an end, the lord of Matsuyama surrendered to the new Emperor and, consequently, the castle was saved from destruction.
Matsuyama Castle consists of a big complex of structures, featuring a large number of moats, walls, gates and turrets, most of which retain their original form. The main tower, known as Donjon, was struck by lightning in 1784 and the present one is a faithful reconstruction dating from 1820. It is one of the rare surviving examples which boasts multiple wings and a secondary Donjon.